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They offer important theoretical background, but also user-specialist can find out solutions
in them. They differ from other forms of online assistance such as wizards, tutorials, guides,
forums, and others. They do not effort the user only one solution and they do not work for
him without an explanation. They rather propose a user the range of possible correct
solutions and seek to encourage users to think of the problem as an expert does. This
activity is similar to that offered by the expert consultation. Another system belonging to a
group of research applications is the expert system developed in China for decision support
in thematic cartography [Zhang, Guo, Jiao, 2008]. It is the kind of a geographic information
system, which helps users with the process of creating thematic maps. The system has a
single interface. Through this system, you can choose the thematic elements and then it is
possible to create automatically thematic maps according to the type and characteristics of
their elements. User can modify the design parameters of various charts and through the
interface obtain satisfactory results. This system is the unique solution of a complex expert
system in thematic cartography. Special distributed solution was developed in Switzerland
[Iosifescu-Enescu, Hugentobler, Hurni, 2010]. QGIS mapserver is an open source WMS
(Web Map Service) (1.3.0 and 1.1.1) implementation. In addition, it implements advanced
cartographic features as specified in the Map and Diagram Service specifications. With QGIS
mapserver the content of vector and raster data sources (e.g. shapefiles, gml, postgis, wfs,
geotiff) can be visualized according to cartographic rules (specified as request parameters).
The generated map is sent back to the client over the internet. The cartographic rules handle
advanced filtering and symbolisation of features. For improved cartographic representation,
the data should be enriched with attributes to control rotation, scale, size or even
As a cartographical guide we can consider also a knowledge-based software component,
called task support guide, that proposes the users appropriate interactive techniques for
accomplishing specific data analysis tasks and explains how to apply these techniques. The
guide is integrated in mapping system CommonGIS [Andrienko, Andrienko, Voss, 2002].
In addition, there is a large number of systems as an outcome of research work. These systems
come from number of the world's research places but they are mostly aimed at the individual
field cartography. These systems also often end just as the output of research or as a
springboard for further research. From most important we can choose, MAPAID [Robinson,
Jackson, 1985], MAPKEY [Su, 1992], ACES [Pfefferkorn et al., 1985] and many others.
3.1 Cartographical knowledge and their acquiring
The first part of construction of cartographic intelligent system is transfer of expert
knowledge from various sources to computer form. The sources in the area of cartography
are cartographers - experts, cartographic books, maps and atlases.
Knowledge acquisition and building knowledge base is a complex and time-consuming
stage of intelligent system development which is indispensable without collaborating
between experts (cartographers) and knowledge engineers. An effectively deployed system
must do more than embody expertise. Its rule base must be complete, non-contradictory,
and reasonable. Knowledge engineers employ a variety of techniques for eliciting
information from the expert in order to construct a complete and consistent rule base [Balch,
Schrader, Ruan, 2007].
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