Information Technology Reference
The knowledge manager.
Knowledge Bases contain the knowledge for solving some problems in a specific knowledge
domain. It must be stored in the computer-readable form so that the inference engine can
use it in the procedure of automated deductive reasoning to solve problems stated in
general forms. They can contain concepts and objects, relations, operators and functions,
facts and rules.
The Inference engine will use the knowledge stored in knowledge bases to solve problems,
to search or to answer for the query. It is the "brain" that systems use to reason about the
information in the knowledge base for the ultimate purpose of formulating new conclusions.
It must identify problems and use suitable deductive strategies to find out right rules and
facts for solving the problem. In an IPSE, the inference engine also have to produce solutions
as human reading, thinking, and writing.
The working memory contains the data that is received from the user during operation of
the system. Consequents from rules in the knowledge base may create new values in
working memory, update old values, or remove existing values. It also stores data, facts and
rules in the process of searching and deduction of the inference engine.
The explanation component supports to explain the phases, concepts in the process of
solving the problem. It presents the method by which the system reaches a conclusion may
not be obvious to a human user, and explains the reasoning process that lead to the final
answer of the system.
The knowledge manager aims to support updating knowledge into knowledge base. It also
supports to search the knowledge and test consistence of knowledge.
The user interface is the means of communication between a user and the system problem-
solving processes. An effective interface has to be able to accept the queries, instructions or
problems in a form that the user enters and translate them into working problems in the
form for the rest of the system. It also has to be able to translate the answers, produced by
the system, into a form that the user can understand. The interface component of the system
is required to have a specification language for communication between the system and
learners, between the system and instructors as well.
The figure 1 below shows the structure of the system.
The main process for problem solving: From the user, a problem in a form that the user
enter is input into the system, and the problem written by specification language is created;
then it is translated so that the system receives the working problem in the form for the
inference engine, and this is placed in the working memory. After analyzing the problem,
the inference engine generates a possible solution for the problem by doing some automated
reasoning strategies such as forward chaining reasoning method, backward chaining
reasoning method, reasoning with heuristics. Next, The first solution is analyzed and from
this the inference engine produces a good solution for the interface component. Based on the
good solution found, the answer solution in human-readable form will be created for output
to the user.