Geology Reference
In-Depth Information
natural regeneraion have been developed for a
few species only, e.g. Ocotea usambarnsis, but
much more silvicultural research is needed
(Mugasha, 1982).
Resources of value to govenment
Wa ter
The value on a resource varies inversely with the
abundance of that resource. This is clearly seen in
the case of water, perhaps the most fundamental
of all forest resources, and one which is becoming
increasingly scarce in absolute terms, as well as in
relaion to development needs. Rapp, Berry &
Temple (1973) document changing pattens of
river flow, leading to less dry season flow and
increasing floods and siltaion in the rains. Most
major ciies in Tanzania have experienced water
shortfalls in the past decade. Dry season hydro-
power generaion suffers because of inadequate
reservoir levels (W.A.R., personal observaions).
The renewed inter e st in forest watersheds by
Tanzania's central govement, including the
development of new catchment forest policy and
the establishment of separate offices and staff
cadres or catchment protecion, shows goven-
mental concen. A thesis by a senior govenment
orest officer invesigaing catchment processes in
the Usambaras (Mbwana, 1988) is indicaive of
this interest, which has coninued to a recent
broader view of montane forest catchments
(Mbwana, 1990).
Minor forest produce
East Africa does not have a major tradiion of
eploitaion of forest resources such as fruit,
seeds, leaves, gums and resins, as, for example are
harvested from the forests of India and South-
East Asia (Krishnamurthy, 1983) although
sandalwood oil is a growing export (F AO, 1982a).
Once important commodiies such as gum copal
are no longer harvested because of compeiion
from economically superior synthetics (Rodgers,
There are potenial minor resources such as
oils from the fruit of Allanblackia, horicultural
varieies of Saintpaulia (African violet), and
potenial geneic values in the several species of
Coffea (wild coffee) (see Lovett, 1985 for a
detailed review). They are likely to benefit local
populaions or organisaions outside Tanzania
rather than the Govenment of Tanzania. The
high cost of production in Tanzania, and the past
virtual govenment monopoly on forest produce
eploitaion, means it is unlikely that such prod-
ucts will achieve economic importance in the
foreseeable future.
Timber is sill a major economic resource and an
important indusry in many regions of Kenya and
Tanzania. Both countries did not export indi-
genous hardwoods for many years although sawn
softwood, plantaion teak, pulp and charcoal are
growing eport items. Tanzania has exported
some products, for example Brachylaena parquet
floorboards. Brachylaena is a ree of coastal closed
forest and is considered threatened by ill-planned
eploitaion. Natural orest imbers eed local
demands for construcion and funiture. Whilst
20 years ago relaively ew species were in de-
mand, many more are being profitably exploited
Very few of the major hardwood species are
being successfully grown in plantaion, Cphalos-
phaera is one excepion. More attenion is being
given to non-indigenous species: Teaona, Maesp-
sis, Cedre/a. Silvicultural operaions to enhance
Resources of value to consevaionss
The intenaional consevaion movements, of
which IUCN/F have been the most obvious
in orest conservaion in East Africa (IUCN/
F, 1982), see ropical forest communiies as
'the most diverse and complex ecosystem on earth
- a virtual powerhouse of evoluion - containing
40% of the living species on earth' (Myers, 1984).
The forests have value in the many species they
contain, several of which are rare and of restricted
disribuion, and several threatened with
imminent exincion. These values are not
necessarily related to the real or potenial econ-
omic worth of the species - it is deeper than that -
and are composed of a moral, aestheic and scien-
iic desire for all such species to survive. The
remendous diversiy of species and species
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