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Fig. 1 Proxy records for Holocene changes of the SWW compared to transient model results.
a Precipitation reconstruction from Lake Aculeo, central Chile (Jenny et al. 2003 ). b Al content
record from core LL-KL009, Lake LleuLleu, central Chile as a paleoprecipitation proxy. c Fe
content changes recorded in core GeoB 3313-1 retrieved from the Chilean continental margin at
S. d Silt/clay ratio record from core SK1 (fjord Seno Skyring) recording the long-distance
eastward transport of illite-rich Andean clay from the Patagonian Batholith, which can be taken as
wind strength proxy (Lamy et al. 2010 ). e Terrestrial organic carbon accumulation rate
record from lake core TML1 in the Strait of Magellan fjord region (Lamy et al. 2010 ). f SST
gradients between the eastern tropical Paci c (core V19-28; Koutavas and Sachs 2008 ) and a mid-
latitude SE Paci c record (core GeoB 7139; Kaiser et al. 2008 ). g Diatom assemblage-based
summer SST record from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean at
S (Bianchi and
Gersonde 2004 ). h 231 Pa/ 230 Th record from a subtropical North Atlantic sediment core taken as a
proxy for the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (McManus et al. 2004 ).
Vertical bars mark the multi-millennial Holocene periods (red = early Holocene intensi cation of
the core SWW and weakening of the northern margin; blue = late Holocene weakening of the core
SWW and intensi cation of the northern margin; yellow = intermediate conditions during the
middle Holocene). i Southern hemisphere zonal wind (m/s) climatology at 850 hPa and SSTs for
austral summer. Study areas in central and southern Chile are marked. j Zonally averaged seasonal
and annual trends in low-level zonal wind for the period 7 ka BP to pre-industrial. Results are from
CCSM3 (Varma et al. 2012a )
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