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Fig. 2 Here we compare Mg/Ca based intermediate water temperatures (IWT)(blue) and
calculated ʴ
O sw values derived from paired Mg/Ca
O c measurements (green) with solar
TSI [Wm 2 ] adapted from (Steinhilber et al. 2009 )(orange) and reconstructed winter
latitudinal temperature gradient (Dec
Feb) adapted from Fischer and Jungclaus ( 2011 )(red).
Bold lines refer to 60-year low-pass filters except for results based on OC437-7 24 GGC (0
BP) in panel b where bold lines show a 200-year low-pass filter. All graphs are plotted versus age.
In panel a the three yellow bars indicate the timing of the Maunder (1), Sp
rer (2) and Wolf (3)
solar minima (left to right) and in panel b the three yellow bars show the timing of the Maunder &
rer (1), Wolf solar minima (2) and the Dark Ages Cold Period (3) (left to right)
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hlemann C, Schulz M (2010) Reduced
North Atlantic central water formation in response to early holocene ice-sheet melting.
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Barker S, Greaves M, Elder eld H (2003) A study of cleaning procedures used for foraminiferal
Mg/Ca paleothermometry. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4:8407
Fischer N, Jungclaus JH (2011) Evolution of the seasonal temperature cycle in a transient holocene
simulation: orbital forcing and sea-ice. Clim Past 7:1139 - 1148
Hatun H, Sando AB, Drange H, Hansen B, Valdimarsson H (2005) Influence of the Atlantic
subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation. Science 309:1841 - 1844
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