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Global Synthesis of Sea-Surface
Temperature Trends During Marine
Isotope Stage 11
Yvonne Milker, Rima Rachmayani, Manuel F.G. Weinkauf,
Matthias Prange, Markus Raitzsch, Michael Schulz
and Michal Ku
Abstract To examine the sea-surface temperature (SST) evolution during inter-
glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, we compiled a database of 78 SST records
from 57 sites. We aligned these records by oxygen-isotope stratigraphy and sub-
jected them to an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The principal
SST trend (EOF1) re
ects a rapid deglacial warming of the surface ocean in pace
with carbon dioxide rise during Termination V, followed by a broad SST optimum
centered at
410 thousand years (ka) before present (BP). The second EOF
indicates the existence of a regional SST trend, characterized by a delayed onset of
the SST optimum, followed by a prolonged period of warmer temperatures. The
proxy-based SST patterns were compared to CCSM3 climate model runs for three
time slices representing different orbital con
gurations during MIS 11. Although
the modeled SST anomalies are characterized by generally lower variance, corre-
lation between modeled and reconstructed SST anomalies suggests a detectable
signature of astronomical forcing in MIS 11 climate trends.
Keywords MIS 11
Sea-surface temperature
Data-model comparison
Empirical orthogonal function
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