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distinct events, i.e., the late glacial massive melt water discharges and the early
interglacial reconnections to the Mediterranean Sea pacing the particular timing and
amplitude of the observed environmental changes (Wegwerth et al. 2014 ). Further
work is needed to reconcile the impact of the Black Sea system on the eastern
Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, detailed Black Sea studies on the transitions from
marine to limnic environments during the late interglacial states are required.
Badertscher S, Fleitmann D, Cheng H, Edwards RL, G ö kt ü rk OM, Zumb ü hl A, Leuenberger M,
T ü ys ü z O (2011) Pleistocene water intrusions from the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas into
the Black Sea. Nat Geosci 4:236 - 239. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1106
Bahr A, Lamy F, Arz HW, Major C, Kwiecien O, Wefer G (2008) Abrupt changes of temperature
and water chemistry in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene Black Sea. Geochem Geophys
Geosyst. doi: 10.1029/2007GC001683
Fleitmann D, Cheng H, Badertscher S, Edwards RL, Mudelsee M, G
rk OM, Fankhauser A,
Pickering R, Raible CC, Matter A, Kramers J, T
z O (2009) Timing and climatic impact of
Greenland interstadials recorded in stalagmites from northern Turkey. Geophys Res Lett.
doi: 10.1029/2009GL040050
rk OM, Fleitmann D, Badertscher S, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Leuenberger M, Fankhauser A,
z O, Kramers J (2011) Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene:
implications from the Sofular Cave record. Quaternary Sci Rev 30:2433
Nowaczyk NR, Arz HW, Frank U, Kind J, Plessen B (2012) Dynamics of the Laschamp
geomagnetic excursion from the Black Sea sediments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 351
doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.06.050
Rohling EJ, Grant K, Bolshaw M, Roberts AP, Siddall M, Hemleben Ch, Kucera M (2009)
Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. Nat
Geosci 2:500 - 504. doi: 10.1038/NGEO557
Shumilovskikh LS, Tarasov P, Arz HW, Fleitmann D, Marret F, Nowaczyk N, Plessen B, Schl ü tz F,
Behling H (2012) Vegetation and environmental dynamics in the southern Black Sea region
since 18 kyr BP derived from the marine core 22-GC3. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 337 - 338:177 - 193.
doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.04.015
Shumilovskikh LS, Marret F, Fleitmann D, Arz HW, Nowaczyk N, Behling H (2013a) Eemian
and Holocene sea-surface conditions in the southern Black Sea: organic-walled dino
cyst record from core 22-GC3. Mar Micropaleontol 101:146
160. doi: 10.1016/j.marmicro.
Shumilovskikh LS, Arz HW, Wegwerth A, Fleitmann D, Marret F, Nowaczyk N, Tarasov P, Behling
H (2013b) Vegetation and environmental changes in Northern Anatolia during 134-119 ka
recorded in Black Sea sediments. Quaternary Res 80:349
360. doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2013.07.005
Wegwerth A, Dellwig O, Kaiser J, M
not G, Bard E, Shumilovskikh L, Schnetger B, Kleinhanns
IC, Wille M, Arz HW (2014) Meltwater events and the Mediterranean reconnection at the
Saalian-Eemian transition in the Black Sea. Earth Planet Sci Lett 404: 124
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