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Circulation and the Impact of Mississippi Discharge ) question the impact of
mega-discharges from the Mississippi River on the large-scale overturning circu-
lation. Prange et al. (Chap. Hydroclimatic Variability in the Panama Bight Region
During Termination 1 and the Holocene ) investigated the role of atmospheric vapor
transport from the Atlantic to the Paci
c Ocean across Central America during the
last glacial termination and
and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is negligible.
Govin et al. (Chap. What Ends an Interglacial? Feedbacks Between Tropical
Rainfall, Atlantic Climate and Ice Sheets During the Last Interglacial ) investigated
the chain of events that accompany the end of an interglacial. For the end of the LIG
find that the feedback between cross-isthmus vapor
find substantial shifts in the South American hydrologic cycle and upper
tropical Atlantic salinities that may have affected the large-scale circulation of the
Atlantic Ocean and North Atlantic climate.
Several projects addressed amplitudes of natural climate variations and changes in
patterns of climate variability from a hemispheric or basin-wide perspective. Pale-
oceanographic reconstructions in the gateway between the Atlantic and Arctic
Oceans by Spielhagen et al. (Chap. Holocene Environmental Variability in the Arctic
Gateway ) revealed highly variable sea-ice conditions during the Holocene. A long-
term cooling trend was rapidly reversed 100 years ago and replaced by general
warming in the Arctic. Morley et al. (Chap. Detecting Holocene Changes in the
Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Integration of Proxy Data and Climate
Simulations ) addressed how climate variability at multidecadal-to-century timescales
is communicated between high and low latitudes. They demonstrated an important
role of central-water circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean to transfer regional
climate signatures of various forcings (freshwater
flux, solar variability, orbital
parameters) to a hemispheric or global scale. On multidecadal and millennial time-
scales, precipitation variability in the Caribbean region during the Holocene was
strongly linked to SST changes in the North Atlantic Ocean, namely the Atlantic
Multidecadal Oscillation and variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional
Overturning Circulation (Felis et al., Chap. Control of Seasonality and Interannual to
Centennial Climate Variability in the Caribbean During the Holocene
Coral Records, Stalagmite Records and Climate Models ). For the westerlies in the
southern hemisphere Lamy et al. (Chap. The Southern Westerlies During the
Holocene: Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions from Chilean Lake, Fjord, and
Ocean Margin Sediments Combined with Climate Modeling ) revealed a distinct
latitudinal anti-phasing of wind changes between the core and northern margin of the
wind belt over the Holocene on centennial-to-millennial timescales. Changes in
atmospheric transport were also found to be relevant by Wegner et al. (Chap. Mineral
Dust Variability in Antarctic Ice for Different Climate Conditions ) to account for
variations in dust transport to Antarctica on glacial-to-interglacial timescales.
Changes in the hydrological cycle have been studied in several projects across a
range of timescales and regions. For the Indian monsoon system, Schneider et al.
(Chap. Model-Data Synthesis of Monsoon Amplitudes for the Holocene and
Eemian ) reconstructed similar conditions for the Holocene and the LIG, whereas
climate-model simulations indicate a more intense hydrological cycle for the LIG.
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