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Lemmen 2003 ) but also within the broader region of Europe and the Mediterranean.
For the
first time, a numerical model shows that the transition to agriculture can also
be explained by information exchange, rather than migration (Lemmen et al. 2011 ).
Climate events may not have been as important for early sociocultural dynamics
as endogenous factors. This could be demonstrated by using idealized climate
events (Wirtz et al. 2010 ) to disturb societies in GLUES. Time-series anomalies
were spatially weighted to assess the regional impact of abrupt climate excursions
(Lemmen and Wirtz 2012 ); climate induced population decline can lead to loss of
knowledge, and could impact regional technological development. Typical
observed lags between cultural complexes were simulated only by a simulation
which included climate extremes (Lemmen and Wirtz 2012 ; Lemmen et al. 2011 ).
The reason for the vulnerability of several societies to climate changes is their
cultural specialization, that is, the restriction to only few different subsistence
economies. Continuous maintenance of a diverse pool of technologies played an
important role in determining the resilience of Neolithic populations to changing
climates. In conclusion, past cultural and sociotechnological changes appear much
less determined by Holocene climate variability than often suggested in the liter-
ature, while the in
uence of past agriculture on the global carbon cycle may have
been larger than previously thought.
Gaillard MJ, Sugita S, Mazier F, Trondman AK, Brostr
m A, Hickler T, Kaplan JO, Kjellstr
Kokfelt U, Kune
P, Lemmen C, Miller P, Olofsson J, Poska A, Rundgren M, Smith B,
Strandberg G, Fyfe R, Nielsen AB, Alenius T, Balakauskas L, Barnekow L, Birks HJB, Bjune
A, Bj
rkman L, Giesecke T, Hjelle K, Kalnina L, Kangur M, van der Knaap WO, Koff T,
s P, Lata
owa M, Leydet M, Lechterbeck J, Lindbladh M, Odgaard B, Peglar S,
H (2010) Holocene land-cover reconstructions for
studies on land cover-climate feedbacks. Clim Past 6:483 - 499
Haberkorn K, Lemmen C, Blender R, Fraedrich K (2012) Iterative land proxy based reconstruction
of SST for the simulation of terrestrial Holocene climate. Earth Sys Dyn Disc 3:149 - 200
Haberkorn K (2013) Reconstruction of the Holocene climate using an atmosphere-ocean-biosphere
model and proxy data. Dissertation, University of Hamburg. (urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-62566)
Kaplan JO, Krumhardt KM, Ellis EC, Ruddiman WF, Lemmen C, Goldewijk KK (2011) Holocene
carbon emissions as a result of anthropogenic land cover change. Holocene 21:775 - 791
Lemmen C (2010) World distribution of land cover changes during pre- and protohistoric times
and estimation of induced carbon releases. G
m U, von Stedingk H, Sepp
Lemmen C (2014) Malthusian assumptions, Boserupian response in transition to agriculture
models. In: Fischer-Kowalski M, Reenberg A, Schaffartzik A, Mayer A (eds) Ester Boserup
omorphol 4:303
Lemmen C, Wirtz KW (2010) Socio-technological revolutions and migration waves: re-examining
early world history with a numerical model. In: Gronenborn D, Petrasch J (eds) The spread of
the Neolithic to Central Europe. RGZM, Mainz, pp 25
legacy on sustainability: orientations for contemporary research. Springer, Vienna, pp 87
Lemmen C, Wirtz KW (2012) On the sensitivity of the simulated European Neolithic transition to
climate extremes. J Archeol Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2012.10.023
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