Agriculture Reference
In-Depth Information
and cultural quality of food, affirming the right of all people to have nutritional, enjoy-
able, and sustainable food. Slow Food also emphasizes artisanal food production,
largely concerned with supporting the evolution of national and international organic
vide producers with a greater portion of the “consumer dollar” spent on end products.3
This represents an attempt to build alternatives to current trade regimes by explicitly
global economic elites as supposedly ethical consumers, the Farmer to Farmer move-
and claims to have several hundred thousand farmer-promoters: small farmers trained
in an empowerment-based pedagogy who travel to other villages and other countries to
directly train other small farmers. Using this peer-to-peer knowledge network, MCAC
seeks to empower promoters and farmers, and to build autonomy and sustainable
livelihoods based on agroecological methods and a culture of experimentation (Holt-
Beyond these prominent, organized transnational actors, recent years have seen
numerous other examples of food movements, including national and subna-
tional movements for agrarian reform (Herring 2003; Ondetti 2008), and govern-
ment agri-environment schemes seeking to integrate the cultural, environmental,
andeconomicfunctionsofagriculture(i.e.,multifunctionalagriculture: Buttel2007;
Otte et  al. 2007). here has also been growing public and government interest in
community-supported agriculture (CSA), farmers' markets, and urban agriculture
(USDA2006,BrownandMiller2008,Mogket al.2012).hisperiodhasalsoseenthe
spreadandinnovationoffoodpolicycouncils(Harperet al.2009;Maluf2010),aswell
the current food system (e.g., The Omnivore's Dilemma , by Michael Pollan; Fast Food
Nation , by Eric Schlosser; Stuffed and Starved , by Raj Patel; Food, Inc. , by Karl Weber; Le
Monde selon Monsanto , by Marie-Monique Robin; and King Corn ,byLeeRoyStewart).
typology of four types of transnational collective action: cross-border diffusion, politi-
cal exchange, transnational issue networks, and true transnational social movements
(p. 237).4 Under his typology, most of the above examples would fail to meet the crite-
ria for transnational social movements per se . True transnational social movements are
defined as exhibiting transnational interactions sustained over time, and a continuous,
high degree of integration between transnational actors and indigenous social networks.
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