Environmental Engineering Reference
Fig. 4.1 Structural plan of Lucca,
Italy. General hierarchy
distribution functions: special-
ized functions of a district
(neighborhood), municipal, and
supramunicipal level are identi-
fied and scored
The system of hierarchies , centrality , and relationships between urban
components, with the landscape moving from the centrality of place to the
spaciousness of flux  (Fig. 4.1).
The relationships between the historical city and new architecture in peri-
urban areas that tends to spread throughout the territorial context, losing
contact with the center where it began  (Fig. 4.2).
The sign of physical city borders that are no longer readable, through
unlimited urban expansion that registers the integration with other territo-
rial and urban systems  and which makes identifying the “pertinent ter-
ritory” always more difficult . In this sense, marginal areas of the city
in the 1980s and 1990s took on a fundamental role in transformation and
requalification policies in European cities (Fig. 4.3).
instituted as of today. Some reflections on the theme can be found in: Lanzani A, Pasqui G (2011)
L'Italia al futuro. Città e paesaggi, economie e società. Franco Angeli, Milan.