Environmental Engineering Reference
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Fig. 4.1 Structural plan of Lucca,
Italy. General hierarchy
distribution functions: special-
ized functions of a district
(neighborhood), municipal, and
supramunicipal level are identi-
fied and scored
The system of hierarchies , centrality , and relationships between urban
components, with the landscape moving from the centrality of place to the
spaciousness of flux [8] (Fig. 4.1).
The relationships between the historical city and new architecture in peri-
urban areas that tends to spread throughout the territorial context, losing
contact with the center where it began [9] (Fig. 4.2).
The sign of physical city borders that are no longer readable, through
unlimited urban expansion that registers the integration with other territo-
rial and urban systems [10] and which makes identifying the “pertinent ter-
ritory” always more difficult [11]. In this sense, marginal areas of the city
in the 1980s and 1990s took on a fundamental role in transformation and
requalification policies in European cities (Fig. 4.3).
instituted as of today. Some reflections on the theme can be found in: Lanzani A, Pasqui G (2011)
L'Italia al futuro. Città e paesaggi, economie e società. Franco Angeli, Milan.
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