Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
152/99 has provided the only official national operating tool for the collec-
tion and analysis of water data. One of the chemical/microbiological indi-
cators used for flowing waters is based on the analysis of seven descriptors
known as “macrodescriptors:” dissolved oxygen (percentage saturation),
biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitro-
gen, nitrates, total phosphorous, and fecal coliform bacteria. Each of these
parameters is associated with a pressure or pollution cause, which is linked
to different causes and origins and acts on the water system.
Together with the indices listed above, the international approach often
uses ornithic communities as ecological indicators for ecosystem processes
and environmental monitoring [1, 2]. Birds, in fact, are useful indicators
for monitoring environmental changes and the condition of ecosystems
because they often respond to the cumulative effects of environmental
influences on the ecosystem [3, 4]. Found at the top of the food chain and
sometimes closely depending on water resources for food, birds are notably
exposed to the risks connected to water pollution , in addition to those
inherent with the bad management of water, such as a sharp variation in
water levels, for example.
Audubon Society (2004) State of the birds USA . Audubon Magazine September-Octo-
ber: 45-50
Environmental Protection Agency (2006) http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/lawsguidance/
Farina A, Meschini E (1985) Le comunità di uccelli come indicatori ecologici. Proceed-
ings of the III Italian Conference of Ornithology, pp. 185-190
Swarth C (2003) Biological Assesment Methods for birds. Athlantic City, New Jersey
Evaluation Methods for Environmental Quality
Piersebastiano Ferranti
In the environmental evaluation field, it is normal practice to subdivide
the environmental issue into items defined as elementary components or
environmental issues. Such subdivision allows a simplified treatment of
each environmental component, thus making possible the correct commu-
nication between the different social/disciplinary sectors.
The issue of environmental quality is in fact very wide and it continu-
ously evolves in parallel to deterioration phenomena, such as pollution ,
deforestation , desertification, biodiversity loss , stratospheric ozone
depletion, and climate change.
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