Environmental Engineering Reference
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The first is developed by shifting attention from the object to the act that
the object transmits, in which its relationships with the past, the territory, and
society resides. In this way, the idea of “heritage as a process” is configured
as a cultural practice that constructs cultural values and meanings [1]. The
second is developed by using the “landscape services concept,” which used
to link landscape ecology knowledge to the field of collaborative landscape
planning. The services concept expands the current paradigm of landscape
ecology and, in the structure-function-value chain, landscape functions can
also be considered from the perspective of the values that humans attribute to
landscapes [2]. Within this context, the cultural heritage, insofar as it is a
constituent part of the landscape , offers a service that is necessarily connect-
ed to society's aspirations, and it translates them into acts aimed at satisfying
this service. Therefore, heritage no longer regards only the past or a memory
of the past, but it also regards the present. What we expect from it and how
we achieve what we expect are planning questions that are related to the
needs of contemporary societies [3].
Therefore, it is possible to conclude that cultural heritage is connect-
ed to the improvement of quality of life in two ways. The first because it is
actually a part of the landscape itself, in which not only environmental fac-
tors contribute to the improvement of the quality of life , but cognitive and
imaginative factors make their contribution as well [4]. In fact, one may
speak of biodiversity but also bio-cultural factors (on which the IUCN also
focuses) and those of “chrono-diversity” [5], which refers to temporal lay-
ers and material traces on which historical disciplines focus. Moreover, the
landscape and its historical component both contribute to keeping the con-
nections between society and their places alive and active. They go on to
generate responsible attitudes and behaviors that are indispensable for the
attainment of the joint objective of sustainability and development.
Smith L (2006) Uses of heritage. Routledge, London
Opdam P, Termorshuizen J (2009) Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecol-
ogy and sustainable development. Landscape Ecol 24:1037-1052. doi: 10.1007/s10980-
Ashworth GJ (2008) In search of the place identity dividend. Using heritage landscapes
to create place identity. In: Eyles J, Williams A (eds) Sense of Place, Health and quality
of Life. Ashgate, Burlington, pp 185-196
Sargolini M (2012) Temi ricorrenti. In: Sargolini M, Talia M (eds) Ri-conoscere e ri-prog-
ettare la città contemporanea. Franco Angeli, Milan
Azzena G (2011) History for places. In: Maciocco G, Sanna G, Serrelli S (eds) The Ur-
ban Potential of External Territories. Franco Angeli, Milano, pp 196-227
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