Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
FIGURE 1.3 Known or suspected links between selected pollutants and disease.
( Source : First Annual Report by the Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart
and Lung Disease, Printing Management Office, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC, August 7, 1978.)
morbidity and mortality are difficult, if not impossible, to conclusively prove in
view of the many possible intervening and confusing factors.
There are an estimated 2 million recognized chemical compounds and more
than 60,000 chemical substances in past or present commercial uses. Approxi-
mately 600 to 700 new chemicals are introduced each year, but only about 15,000
have been animal tested with published reports. Limited trained personnel and
laboratory facilities for carcinogenesis testing in the United States by government
and industry will permit testing of no more than 500 chemicals per year. Each
animal experiment requires 3 to 6 years and a cost of more than $300,000. 120
Another estimate is $500,000 just to establish the carcinogenicity of one com-
pound with the National Cancer Institute test protocol, requiring at least two
species of rodents and 3 years' time. 121 A full toxicologic test, including those
for carcinogenicity, can take five years and cost in excess of $1.25 million for
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