Environmental Engineering Reference
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that can be used to trigger a desired response. The definition of EALs during the
planning removes the ambiguity of uncertainty attitude when a problem emerges.
Damage Assessment and Recovery Operations
During the early phase of an event, the initial damage is only estimated. Plans
should include procedures for conducting more detailed surveys. The procedures
should include safety concerns, structural damage, clean-up activities, reentry
controls, and hazard assessment. Recovery operations include informing and
briefing local officials, issuing public information releases, restoring medical and
government functions, removing debris, restoring utilities, providing emergency
shelter, and providing building and public safety inspections.
Resources, in terms of people as well as facilities and equipment, are neces-
sary for the contingency plan to work. Questionnaires should be developed in
order to identify available resources. The questionnaires should be provided to
the sources of identified hazards (facilities, transporters) and to local response
and government agencies. The National Response Team's Hazardous Materials
Planning Guide (NRT-1, 2001 update) contains a list of questions. 18
Personnel The people available to implement the contingency plan must be
identified. The specific community points of contact should be identified by posi-
tion and title, along with their areas of responsibility. A list of the individuals
who hold these positions and their alternates should be developed separately.
Since positions stay constant, the plan should identify position titles only, with
names of responsible individuals and 24-hour phone numbers in a separate, easily
updated document. Once the personnel resources and areas of responsibility are
identified, a matrix of groups versus functions is readily constructed.
Facilities In most cases, local governments already have facilities in place to
handle the types of emergency situations they are likely to face. To the degree
possible, the facilities should be integrated into the plan and augmented as neces-
sary for industrial emergency response. In order to develop mutual understanding,
letters of agreement or memoranda of understanding must be executed between
government leaders and the organizations responsible for buildings that may be
needed during an emergency. Normally a section of the town hall or police or
fire department headquarters is established to store the equipment necessary to
set up a center from which to direct emergency response.
The public receives most of its information about emergency situations
through the media. For this reason, a media center should be available,
staffed by spokespersons from industry as well as from local government and
response agencies. Other facilities that may be needed in local response to an
emergency depend on what has been identified during the hazards analysis
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