Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Forms of Gastroenteritis, Symptoms, and Causative Agents
Responsible Organisms
Diarrhea and/or vomiting, no
fecal leukocytes, no blood in
stool, usually no fever.
Bacteria: Staphylococcus
aureus , a Bacillus cereus , a
Clostridium perfringens , a
Clostridium botulinum a
Viruses: noroviruses
Protozoa: Giardia lamblia
(intestinalis), Cryptosporidium
Algae: Pfiesteria spp a .
Bacteria: Vibrio cholerae , b
enteropathogenic Escherichia
coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative
E. coli (EAggEC), Clostridium
difficile, Shigella spp,
enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
Viruses: rotavirus, Caliciviruses b
Protozoa: Entamoeba dispar
Diarrhea and/or vomiting, fecal
leukocytes present, usually
severe fever, no blood in stool.
Invasion past epithelial layer of
Gl tract, may not have any
diarrhea or vomiting, dysentery
may be present (mucus
containing bloody feces), fecal
leukocytes present, fever: may
not have any Gl tract problems
but instead severe systemic
Bacteria. Salmonella spp.,
Campylobacter jejuni ,
enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC),
enterohemorrhagic E. coli
(EHEC), Vibrio vulnificus,
Yersinia spp., Franciscella
tularensis, Bacillus anthracis,
Helicobacter pylori
Viruses: unknown
Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica
Source :MWH, Water Treatment: Principles and Design , 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken,
NJ, 2005.
a These microorganisms grow on food or in the environment and produce toxins that, when ingested,
cause gastroenteritis a few hours later (only Pfiesteria spp. is of concern to drinking water).
b Often cited as not causing a fever.
to a complex field requiring much further study. There are likely many bacterial
toxins, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths, chemicals, and other agents that
are not suspected or that are not examined for or discovered by available labora-
tory methods. Emerging infectious diseases worldwide are becoming recognized,
particularly among the viruses, and will undoubtedly expand the list.
The primary bacterial pathogens, which have been historically linked to water-
borne disease, are well known. However, a less-recognized occurrence in the
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