Environmental Engineering Reference
Settlements in 1980 attempted to “sanitize” the landfill recovery operations in
the Metro Manila region with public employees doing the picking over, using
protective clothing and picking gear, but it was found that the costs of this was
greater than the value of the recovered materials 49 .
Indonesia A World Bank - sponsored project in the 1980s 150 developed a plan
for markedly increasing the life of the available SLF sites by use of equipment
for compacting the waste into bales before disposal, thus greatly decreasing the
waste disposal volume.
China The World Bank's project for resettlement for the major Xiaolanddi
dam/reservoir project on the Yellow River included provisions for adequate SWM
in the resettlement cities, including use of appropriate vehicles for picking up and
hauling wastes to transfer stations fenced off to prevent access by children, then
hauling to SLF sites including fencing off of the sites to prevent public access 160 .
Hence, these resettlement cities are blessed with USWM facilities much better
than those in the cities in which the resettlers previously lived.
Alternative Disposal Methods
The DCs cannot consider use of incineration because of the unaffordable high
costs. Several attempts have been made for use of composting (as practiced
in Europe), including construction in Bangkok in the 1960s of several major
composting plants presumed to be useful as a general disposal alternative. These
have been abandoned except for one plant, which produces only a small amount
of compost sold to nearby fruit orchard farmers 46 .
Reclamation of Swamp Lowlands by Refuse Landfilling
Project Concept It was observed in the Jakarta region of Indonesia in the
1970s 150 that valuable land was being reclaimed from uninhabited swamp areas
by filling of the swamps with solid wastes by private-sector operators. This
practice would be prohibited by U.S. health authorities, but examination of this
practice in Jakarta indicated that it was essentially sound.
The solid waste materials, under water-saturated conditions, quickly consol-
idated and degraded to form good land. This led to a World Bank - sponsored
R&D project conducted at Bangkok for evaluating the feasibility of reclaim-
ing swamp areas by filling with refuse 104 . The study examined core samples in
Bangkok areas that had been filled by refuse. Half of the city of Bangkok is built
on former swampland filled with refuse, but the other half on areas filled with
dirt or sand.
Stabilization Phenomena The study evaluated the available literature on
research studies of landfilling with solid wastes, on gas production and degree
of stabilization of the fill materials, to obtain appropriate guidelines or criteria