Environmental Engineering Reference
practice in many DCs has been for the central government to build the
plant, then “abandon” it to the local government to be managed without
provision for funding of O&M. The ADB study of 1990 7 on “Economic
Policies for Sustainable Development” stresses the need to decentralize so
that the local governments have both responsibility and authority for plan-
ning/building/operating, with ability to raise their own funds, with the central
government in an assisting role.
The role of the EIA in the project feasibility report is very important for
helping ensure attention to all of the issues already noted. The manual on
EIA for USEM prepared for use in Thailand in 1997 6 serves this need
and, as such, can be very helpful to all parties concerned including project
proponents, regulatory officials, and design engineers.
Brief discussions some of the problems already noted are given next. Details
are given in 135 .
Sewerage-cum-Sanitation Systems for 100 Percent Excreta
The first effort to plan and implement a comprehensive USEM system that pro-
vides for management of all excreta in the study area, so that its public health
protection target will actually be achieved, is the World Bank - sponsored Jakarta
Sewerage and Sanitation Project, which was constructed in the 1980s 152 . It cov-
ers one selected area in the overall Jakarta region. The project includes both (1) a
system for collecting and treating sewage from those portions of the area capable
of paying for this service (the affluent portion), with the interceptors planned for
ready expansion eventually to cover all areas, and (2) provisions for satisfactory
use of on-site disposal units for buildings not connected to the sewerage system.
The recommended on-site disposal is provided by use of dual leaching pits,
which receive the discharges from pour-flush toilets, including establishment by
the municipality of a special pit desludging service dedicated to servicing only
these nonaffluent areas, with use of special desludging trucks designed to be
narrow enough to enable access to buildings on narrow streets/lanes, with long
desludging hoses. These units give satisfactory service for most of the premises
for which the ground permeability and groundwater levels enable them to function
as designed, and for these desludging is needed only every several years, with
the premise owner paying for this service. For the relatively small percentage
of the houses/buildings where permeability is not adequate and/or groundwater
levels are too high, more frequent desludging is needed, with these extra costs
subsidized by the municipality.
Sewage Treatment Systems
Evaluation of the accumulated experience in numerous DCs showed that the
tendency is for each municipal system to be designed on its own, employing