HTML and CSS Reference
Apply markup in a semantic manner.
Semantic markup is markup that describes the content it contains, rather than what the
content should look like. This means coding paragraphs with the p element, titles with
heading elements, and so on.
Sometimes referred to as Plain Old Semantic HTML (POSH), semantic markup
eschews the use of presentational elements like font or table for layout purposes (see
POSH focuses on content. If you have a paragraph, use p . A heading? h1 . The point is
to use the element that best describes the content.
Become familiar with the changes in HTML5 so that your code remains both semantic
and valid. HTML5 redefined several elements like b and i (see Recipes 1.9 and 1.10 )
and completely dropped others, like frame , frameset , and noframes . Also gone are
presentational elements and attributes, as shown in Table 2-1 .
Table 2-1. Sampling of obsolete presentational features in HTML5
For tips and tricks on how to style semantic markup, read CSS Cookbook by Christopher
Schmitt (O'Reilly); visit http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/obsolete.html for the full list of
obsolete elements and attributes.