HTML and CSS Reference
Switching Between Uppercase and Lowercase
he text-transform property converts text to use initial caps, all lowercase, or all uppercase. It's supported by all
browsers, and accepts the following values:
capitalize Convert to uppercase the first letter after every space.
lowercase Convert all characters to lowercase.
uppercase Convert all characters to uppercase.
none No conversion.
he text-transform property is inherited, so it affects all child elements. Set the value to none in a child
element to turn off an inherited text transformation rule.
Controlling Whitespace and Line Wrapping
Browsers automatically close up sequences of spaces, ignore new lines in HTML, and wrap text at the right
edge. he white-space property gives you control over the handling of whitespace and new lines. It accepts the
normal This is the default value and is used to cancel any inherited value.
pre Preserve all spaces and new lines in the HTML.
nowrap Prevent the browser from automatically wrapping text.
pre-line Close up sequences of whitespace as in normal text, but honor new lines.
Not supported in IE 6-7.
pre-wrap Preserve sequences of whitespace and new lines, but automatically wrap text
when the border is reached. Not supported in IE 6-7.
Using pre has a similar effect to <pre> tags in HTML, but with the advantage of preserving the current font.
It's useful for displaying poetry without the need to insert <br> tags at the end of each line. You can also use
spaces to indent lines.
There are examples of each value of white-space in white-space.html . Figure 4-13 shows the results. The
section with the gray background illustrates the effect of text wrapping.