Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Interconnection between neighbouring countries is often limited, and the expan-
sion in wind farm sites in recent years has not generally been matched by an increase
in interconnection capacity. Northern Germany, for example, already has a high
concentration of wind. This will only increase further with the adoption of Germany's
ambitious plans for offshore sites (DENA, 2005). Thus, interconnectors to the
Netherlands, France, western Denmark and Poland can often be overloaded. Similar
difficulties exist between Scotland, with its rich wind resources, and England. Here
export southwards can be limited by the existing Scotland-England interconnector
and the North of England transmission network. Ireland presents a contrasting
example. Due to the concentration of wind farms in the northwest, interconnection
provides minimal opportunity for wind power flows. Of course, island systems can
also be adversely affected by limited interconnection. Sardinia, located off the west
coast of Italy, but electrically joined via Corsica to the mainland by a 300 MVA
submarine cable, is expected to experience significant growth in wind generation
(Pantaleo et al. , 2003). The existing base-loaded, tar-fired plant have minimal reg-
ulating capability. In the future, when load-following requirements are high (morning
rise and evening fall), and/or local demand is low, wind curtailment may be required.
Figure 5.26 compares the installed wind power capacity, relative to both
their population size and export capability, for a number of European countries
(Rodr´guez et al. , 2005). The former measure provides an indirect measure of
installed wind power capacity relative to power system size. For most of the
countries shown the export capability is high relative to current wind penetration
levels, suggesting that there is scope for external regulation. However, it is the
600
300
Population density
Export capability
500
400
200
300
200
100
100
0
0
Denmark
France
Germany
Ireland
Portugal
Spain United Kingdom
Figure 5.26
Interconnection capability of selected European countries
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