a) Menu-Based interfaces for Web Clients or Browsing — These interfaces present user
with lists of options, called menus that lead the user through the formulation a request.
Menus do away with the need to memorize the specific commands and syntax of a query
language. Pull-down menus are a very popular technique in Web based user interfaces.
They are also often used in browsing interfaces, which allows a user to look through the
contents of a database.
b) Form-based Interfaces — These interfaces consist of forms which are adapted to the
user. He/She can fill in all of the fields and make new entries to the database or only some
of the fields to query the other ones. But some operations might be restricted by the applic-
Form-based user interfaces are wide spread and are a very important means of interacting
with a DBMS. They are easy to use and have the advantage that the user does not need
special knowledge about database languages like SQL.
c) Text-based Interfaces — To be able to administrate the database or for other profes-
sional users there are possibilities to communicate with the DBMS directly in the query
language via a input/output window. Text-based interfaces are very powerful tools and al-
low a comprehensive interaction with a DBMS. However, the use of these is based on act-
ive knowledge of the respective database language.
d) GIS Interface — A GIS user interface often integrates features of a database interface.
The database interaction takes place through the combination of different interfaces:
Graphical interaction via a selection on the map
Combination of form-based and text-based interaction (e.g. special Query
Wizards for the easier creation of database queries)
e) Interfaces for the DBA — Most database systems contain privileged commands that
can be used only by the DBA's staff. These include commands for creating account, setting
system parameters, granting account authorization, changing a schema, and reorganizing
the storage structures of a database.
2.9 Classification of DBMS
DBMS can be classified by following:
1. Based on the Data Model
- Traditional : Hierarchical, Network, Relational (All ready discussed)
- Emerging : Object Oriented, Semantic, Entity Relationship
2. Other Classification