A database is a collection of information—preferably related information and organized. In
other words a database is an organized collection of data used for the purpose of modeling
some type of organization or organizational process. It really doesn't matter whether we
are using paper or a computer software program to collect and store the data. As long as we
are gathering data in some organized manner for a specific purpose, you've got a database.
The structure is achieved by organizing the data according to a database model. The model
that is most commonly used today is the relational model. A database, on the other hand, is
the implementation or creation of a physical database on a computer. A database model is
used to create a database.
1.2.1 Types of Databases
There are two types of databases found in database management, operational databases and
Operational databases are the backbone of many organizations, companies, universities and
institutions throughout the world today. This type of database is primarily used in on-line
transaction processing (OLTP) scenarios, where data is collected, modified and maintained
on a daily basis. An operational database is always of dynamic nature, meaning that it
changes constantly and always reflects up-to-theminute information. Organizations, such
as retail stores, share market, banks, railway, airways companies, manufacturing compan-
ies, hospitals, and publishing houses, use operational databases because their data is in a
constant state of change. Traditionally, data elements stored in databases have been simply.
Transactions have been of short duration and often needed to access only a few data items.
College database for maintaining information concerning students, courses, and marks in a
For example, a university or college database might contain information about the follow-
Entities such as students, faculty, courses.
Relationships between entities, such as students' enrollment in courses, faculty teaching
Analytical databases are primarily used in on-line analytical processing (OLAP) scenarios,
where there is a need to store and track historical and time-dependent data. An analytical
database is a valuable asset when there is a need to track trends, view statistical data over a
long period of time, and make tactical or strategic business projections. This type of data-
base stores static data, meaning that the data is never modified. The information gleaned
from an analytical database reflects a point-in-time snapshot of the data. Chemical labs,