Environmental Engineering Reference
Fig. 1.7 Effect of solid concentrations on heat up time of pretreatment reactor containing biomass
enzymes and microbial systems, as well as improved understanding of the basis for
biomass recalcitrance are critical determinants of the successful implementation of
Acknowledgements This work was funded by the US DOE Office of the Biomass Program.
The authors also acknowledge the valuable intellectual insights provided by Dr. James McMillan,
National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, on issues related to transport
processes in biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.
1. McMillan, J. D. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. In: ACS Symposium Series; 1994;
1994. pp. 292-324.
2. Wyman, C. E. (1996) Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: overview. In: Wyman
C. E., ed. Handbook on Ethanol. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1-18.
3. Wyman, C. E. (2001) Twenty years of trials, tribulations, and research progress in bioethanol
technology - Selected key events along the way. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
91-93 , 5-21.
4. Wyman, C. E., Dale, B. E., Elander, R. T., Holtzapple, M., Ladisch, M. R., and Lee,
Y. Y. (2005) Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment
Bioresource Technology 96 , 1959-1966.
5. Himmel, M. E., Ding, S. Y., Johnson, D. K., et al. (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: Engineering
plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315 , 804-807.
6. Ramos, L. P. (2003) The chemistry involved in the steam treatment of lignocellulosic
materials. Quimica Nova 26 , 863-871.