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100% annually renewable resources with cost and performance that compete with
petroleum-based packaging materials and fibers ( http://www.natureworksllc.com ).
It has a capacity of 140,000 metric tons of polymer. Jiangxi Musashino Bio-chem
Co., Ltd. (JMB) is a Sino-Japanese joint venture which has a capacity of 5,000 met-
ric ton L-lactic acid from grain starch. With the increasing demand of lactic acid for
biodegradable plastics production, processing technology for lactic acid production
from abundant lignocellulosic biomass is expected to be substantially improved for
conversion of multiple sugars derived from cellulose and hemicelluloses to lactic
Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Mrs. Mary Wicks. Mr. Yuguang Zhou, Ms.
Caixia Wan (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University) for
reading through the manuscript, collecting the literature, and providing useful suggestions.
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