Environmental Engineering Reference
dioxide per kilometre. Older vehicles and thirsty new cars have higher emissions,
whereas economical small cars sometimes have considerably less. Carbon dioxide
emissions can also be calculated based on the amount of petrol used. Emissions
should be less than 80 g per kilometre by 2020 if we want to achieve the targets for
saving the climate.
Not only the type of car but also the way in which it is driven has a major impact
on how much petrol is consumed. The following energy-saving tips will enable
savings of up to 30%:
Check tyre pressure frequently and pump up tyres at a minimum to the pres-
sure for a fully loaded vehicle recommended by the car's manufacturer.
Change gear as early as possible, drive at a uniform speed and always antici-
pate what is ahead of you.
Restrict maximum speed on motorways.
Do not transport unnecessary ballast or unneeded roof luggage racks.
Switch off air conditioning and other energy-consuming devices when they
are not needed.
For short distances try to walk or go by bicycle.
Determining Carbon Dioxide Emissions Based on Petrol Usage
g CO 2
g CO 2
g CO 2
g CO 2
The capacity utilization of a car has the biggest effect on energy use. On average
three to four seats in a car are empty when it is being driven. With four people in
a vehicle and careful driving, the carbon dioxide emitted per person can be even
lower than with a train.
Capacity utilization also plays an important role with other forms of transport. As
the capacity utilization of public local transport is on average lower than that of
long-distance travel, the rate of carbon dioxide emissions is also higher. A coach
fi lled to capacity is particularly economical in energy use. In contrast, heavy fast
trains such as France's TGV can consume surprisingly high amounts of energy.
Air traffi c produces the highest carbon dioxide emissions. Long-haul fl ights cause
the most harm to the climate, because the exhaust gas of planes is more damaging
when emitted at high altitudes. If this factor is calculated into carbon dioxide emis-
sions, these rise to 400 g per kilometre.
The car industry is investigating numerous solutions to enable climate-neutral
mobility in the medium and long term. These include: