Environmental Engineering Reference
same time recommends considering videoconferencing and travel by train as
For example, Atmosfair had large solar thermal systems installed in temples, hos-
pitals and schools in different projects at 18 locations in India. One of the projects
is a solar kitchen for a Hindu place of pilgrimage, Sringeri Mutt. Diesel burners had
been supplying the energy to prepare meals for thousands of pilgrims until modern
solar mirrors replaced them as part of the project (Figure 14.17). The mirrors bundle
sunlight onto a pipe and heat the water, which is then fed to the kitchen. A cleverly
devised steam system ensures that the kitchens can still function even after sunset.
Another aim of the project is to implement a transfer of technology to local enter-
prises. The systems for all 18 projects were made by an Indian manufacturer and
by 2012 should be offsetting a total of around 4000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions
from air travel.
Figure 14.17 Solar-mirror systems fi nanced through contributions from environmental protection funds
replace conventional diesel burners in large kitchens in India. Source: atmosfair, www.atmosfair.com.
14.5 Carbon-Free Electricity for an Island
The combination power plant project described in Chapter 4 showed that completely
carbon-free and reliable electricity supply based on renewable energies is techni-
cally possible if different renewable plants work together on a complementary basis.
The prerequisite for renewable electricity supply is a large-scale grid interconnec-
tion, which is available almost everywhere in densely populated industrialized
countries. Smaller grids in remote regions can also guarantee supply using indi-
vidual renewable electricity power plants combined with storage facilities.
One example is the Utsira community in Norway. Around 215 inhabitants live here
on a 6 km square island 18 km west of the Norwegian mainland. In a pilot project