HTML and CSS Reference
A.2.6. The XML HTTP Request object
This API has existed in IE since the late 1990s and has been heavily used in web applica-
tions since Firefox implemented its version between 2000 and 2002, giving birth to AJAX
cification until WHATWG added it to its specifications in 2004. Currently, the XML HTTP
Request (XHR) object has a specification all to itself at the W3C. XHR and AJAX are well
known and well used, so even though XHR is, strictly speaking, HTML5, we don't cover
it specifically in this topic.
A.3. Popular non-HTML5 technologies
Some popular specifications and technologies are commonly mistaken for HTML5 because
of their intriguing features. Although these new technologies began to emerge around the
same time that HTML5 was becoming established and frequently featured in HTML5
Showcase sites and HTML5 topics (including this one), they're not HTML5 by the defini-
tion given earlier. One good way to describe this group of web development technologies,
suggested by Bruce Lawson, is “HTML5 and friends.”
CSS3 brings several amazing features to web development, such as transitions and 3D
transforms. But it's an entirely separate specification from HTML5. There is no specific
CSS3 coverage in this topic, but CSS will be used to support all of this topic's apps.
For a gentle introduction to CSS3, see Hello! HTML5 & CSS3 by Rob Crowther (Manning,
2012). There's also good information on tools for CSS3 in Sass and Compass in Action by
Wynn Netherland, Nathan Weizenbaum, Chris Eppstein, and Brandon Mathis (Manning,
A lot of early HTML5 demos featured the Geolocation API. But this API has never been a
part of the HTML Living Standard or the HTML5 family of specifications at W3C.