HTML and CSS Reference
HTML Tidy is a markup corrector that fixes invalid HTML and improves the layout and indent style of the markup.
The tool was developed by Dave Raggett , the coauthor and editor of several markup specifications at W3C. Since it is
written in ANSI C, precompiled binaries are available for a variety of platforms and can be compiled for further ones.
HTML Tidy is available under the W3C license at Sourceforge.net (both as a downloadable binary and as the source
code)  or as an online service at W3C .
The software can identify and correct missing or mismatched end tags, mixed-up tags, and quotes, as well as
change markup layout according to predefined styles .
Tidy for PHP
The HTML markup generated by PHP scripts can be checked and corrected by the PHP extension Tidy . As an
example, functions can be written to take HTML markup fragments as strings and run them through HTML Tidy. The
output is a valid markup. This approach makes automatic page processing and standardization possible. If there are
errors in the code, the location (line, column) and the error cause are clearly indicated or automatically corrected .
W3C Log Validator “combines a Server Log analysis engine with batch validation, link checking, and other
quality-oriented processing, for step-by-step improvement and maintenance of Web Site Quality” . It finds the
most frequently downloaded invalid documents, broken links, other errors, and inconsistencies, and it sets a priority
list for fixing them. This feature is designed for standardizing large-scale invalid web sites step by step by correcting
only a certain amount of documents at a time. Eventually, the whole site will be fixed, but you can determine how to
schedule development time and effort.
Log Validator applies processing modules that validate the latest server logs against markup and style sheet
recommendations (according to W3C HTML and CSS Validation Services). The SurveyEngine module creates
a summary of errors for the most popular documents that might affect the overall quality of the site. The basic
processing module generates only a list of documents by popularity. Log Validator supports three types of output:
raw, mail, and HTML.
Responsive Web Design Frameworks
Responsive frameworks are used by web designers to build a web site using a grid-based layout with predefined
base code without spending a huge amount of time creating a grid structure from scratch. The following sections
summarize some of the most popular Responsive Web Design frameworks.
ZURB Foundation is one of the most popular free tool collections for responsive website and web application
development . It contains HTML and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and
Foundation is modular and based on Sass style sheets so that web designers can enjoy the benefits of variables,
functions, operators, nested selectors, as mixins. From version 3.0 onward, Foundation can also be customized
through a form to choose and modify the components needed for your project.
The default flexible grid layout of Foundation is 940 pixels wide, and supports the following device categories:
mobile phones in portrait and landscape orientation, tablets, and PCs with low and high resolution screens. Selecting
a device category adjusts the column width.