HTML and CSS Reference
The Java programming language was already mentioned earlier in the chapter regarding Java applets. However, Java is
also used on the server side.
JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a Java technology for dynamically generated web pages. The syntax of JSP combines
scriptlet elements and markup (typically HTML or XML) . The content of scriptlet elements is Java code that might
be mixed with the markup.
The Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a popular platform for server-side programming in Java. The
platform and the associated APIs are defined in separate specifications [37, 38].
WebObjects is a Java web application server and web application framework for Mac OS X developed by Apple.
WebObjects is described by Apple specifications [39, 40, 41].
The .NET Framework
Microsoft .NET is a popular software framework with a wide-ranging library . The .NET Framework supports
several programming languages (C#, J#, VB .NET, and so on). Any of these languages can use code written in other
languages, which provides a high level of interoperability. A fundamental part of the framework architecture is the
application virtual machine called Common Language Runtime (CLR) , which is Microsoft's implementation of the
Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) . CLI is an ECMA standard (ECMA 335 ).
Some applications of the .NET Framework, such as ADO.NET, ASP.NET, and Windows Forms, are not parts of the
previously mentioned standards.
Active Server Pages, often referred to as ASP or ASP Classic, was a web application framework developed by Microsoft
for creating interactive and dynamic web pages. It has been superseded by ASP.NET, which provides powerful features
for web applications and services . The typical file extensions are .asp for ASP and .aspx for ASP.NET files.
As you can see in Listing 6-48, an ASP script can be embedded in the document body of a web page by delimiting
the script with <% and %> .
Listing 6-48. ASP Script in the Markup
<title>Simple ASP embedding example</title>
Before introducing HTML5 support in Visual Studio and ASP.NET in 2011, ASP.NET generated error-free XHTML
markup in most cases. Since ASP.NET does not modify static text and nonserver markup elements, however, the
final markup was not necessarily standards-compliant per XHTML 1.0 Strict. According to Microsoft, some markup
controls providing optional functionality, especially those with a target attribute for specifying their client-side
behavior ( AdRotator , BulletedList , HyperLink , HyperLinkColumn , ImageMap , MenuItem , TreeNode ), might result in
markup code that is not standard compliant .