HTML and CSS Reference
Always use the appropriate file type for web publishing. Markup documents are preferred for general contents
and should be used whenever possible. With the introduction of HTML5, the share of documents published as
markup has become larger than ever before. HTML5—especially empowered by CSS3 style sheets and jQuery
scripts—has all the features to create animations instead of Flash, presentations instead of PowerPoint presentations,
and so forth. Still, editable documents should not be converted into markup. Downloading a Word document and
modifying it to fit your needs can be very convenient. Printable documents that need to be signed only are frequently
provided in PDF. Special file types are confusing and cannot be processed by user agents. 22 It is the web author's
responsibility to provide documents in the right file format.
In this chapter, you learned about the versions and variants of markup languages, which is beneficial for many
reasons. First, it is required to know the history of markup languages to become capable of choosing the most suitable
markup for your projects. Second, the relationship between these markup languages is vital when moving from one
document type to another. Third, becoming familiar with the vocabulary of HTML and XHTML languages can be
useful not only for comparison but also to ensure that you use only those elements and attributes that are allowed in
the chosen document type. While most modern web sites are written in HTML5, there are millions of sites written in
older markup languages. More and more owners of obsolete web sites order an HTML5 upgrade or a complete site
redesign based on HTML5, CSS3, and jQuery, while most new projects are based on these technologies.
Error-free markup code is among the most important features of standard-compliant web sites, but its full
potential can be used only if it is served with proper settings. The next chapter will discuss the basics of server
configuration, the most common content types, and the URIs used to query and link web sites.
Raggett D (2005) Getting started with HTML, revised version. World Wide Web
Consortium. http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/Guide/ . Accessed 18 October 2014
Smith M (2010) HTML: The Markup Language Reference. World Wide Web Consortium.
http://dev.w3.org/html5/markup/ . Accessed 21 January 2011
Pilgrim M (2010) HTML5: Up and Running. O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol
Meloni JC, Morrison M (2009) Teach Yourself HTML and CSS in 24 Hours (8th edn). Sams,
Lemay L, Colburn R (2010) Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML and CSS in One
Hour a Day: Includes New HTML5 Coverage (6th edn). Sams, Indianapolis
Powell TA (2010) HTML & CSS: The Complete Reference (5th edn). McGraw-Hill Osborne
W3C (2010) W3C Cheat Sheet. World Wide Web Consortium. http://www.w3.org/2009/
Quittner J (1999) Tim Berners Lee - Time 100 People of the Century. Time Magazine.
Accessed 11 September 2010
22 Unknown file types that browsers cannot recognize by extension might still be processed or rendered (such as unknown formats
provided in XML serialization are probably be represented as an XML tree).