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thought, to keep trying to follow unpredictable and unstable conditions, consum-
ing lots of mental energy, waiting for the next innovation “ghost” to show up. It
requires large amounts of expertise, stress control methods, empathy in relation-
ships with others, and a perpetual appetite for knowledge and creativity (Boutellier,
Gassmann, & Zedtwitz, 2008).
14.4 Basic Restructuring Procedures
In this section, we propose mainstream procedures that aim at reshaping the edu-
cational system from its contemporary state toward a strategic element of a modern
state (field of interest is the Greek case). The process should emphasize the redesign
of high-order policies that actually reestablish PA by facing drastically the causes
rather than the symptoms of its pathology (Von Stamm, 2008). It should be char-
acterized by the following principles:
Transparency in all activities, especially in those undertaken by high stand-
ing authorities
Quality of produced services
Inclusiveness and participation
Meritocracy among students and staff
Trust in cultural and schooling institutions
Effectiveness, concerning the learning outcome
Student-oriented approach behind every initiative
Skill reinforcement by targeted use of information and communication tech-
nology (ICT)
In the past, there have been enough reformatory programs, zealously pro-
claimed by the Ministry of Education and other institutions, that have shown little
success in the course of their implementation. The difference with the current pro-
posal is the operational—targeted and result—oriented approach it uses to improve
the expected outcome.
We chose to apply four different methods, each one representing a fundamental
concept in the international public management literature. They are MBO (for
planning), CAF (for assessment), ISO (for standardization), and eGov (for inno-
vation). They correspond to different facets of the transformation process and are
implemented sequentially, to achieve the best result.
14.4.1 The System MBO
The term refers to the process of determining specific targets and goals, emanat-
ing from the upper administration levels and diffusing to the lower levels of hier-
archy, in the form of specialized actions (MBO). Directors and principals at all
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