Information Technology Reference
in a corporate context. To further expand knowledge within a public context, some
suggestions were made that could potentially lead to new insights into this particu-
lar domain of interest.
Key terms and Definitions
Alignment: process of conducting relevant activities that continuously adjust core
organizational elements to realize the most optimum position, for example,
E-government: use by government organizations of ICT with the enabling capabil-
ity to transform interaction with citizens, businesses, and other government-
IC T: ICTs associated with the development and management of the computer and
networking aspects of information systems.
ICT management: efficient and effective development and management of ICT
resources in support of the major organizational needs and core priorities.
ICT strategy: major ICT plans and activities enabling transformation deemed sup-
portive and challenging to an organization's core mission and purpose.
ICT strategy-making: deliberate and emergent processes enacted during the plan-
ning and execution of high-level organizational ICT initiatives intended
to realize performance benefits.
Public organization: state-run organizations owned or controlled by a govern-
ment and paid for by revenues collected from taxation.
Strategic alignment: congruent organizational action to manipulate ICT toward
Strategy: organizational planning and execution of the necessary actions to achieve
high-level aims aligned to its core purpose and long-term direction.
Strategy process: multilevel tasks and activities to formulate and implement plans
with the intended purpose and aim to achieve a favorable outcome.
Dr. Eamonn Caffrey holds BSc and MA degrees in business and information tech-
nology (IT). He was awarded a PhD degree by the University of Dublin in 2013.
His doctoral thesis focused on the roles of middle managers in aligning business
and IT strategies in public organizations. He has extensive experience working with
multinational corporations and small-medium enterprises, both in Ireland and
internationally. Current interests include research, teaching, consulting, writing,
and publishing. Research foci are concerned with strategic IT alignment and busi-
ness performance; corporate-level issues in relation to strategy and technology; and
facilitating management teams to develop and execute IT strategy. This includes