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only about bullying, but also about the ways that restrictive versions of masculinities
were encouraged as part of the institutional culture and relationships.
1 . PAR is a form of collaborative research that has a long history in social psychology. PAR research-
munities. It pursues democratic participation at each phase of the research from the framing of
research questions to the analyses of the data (Cammarota and Fine 2008; Reason and Bradbury
2 . This research was conducted in close partnership with the Center for the Study of Boys' and Girls'
Lives (CSBGL). CSBGL supports an ongoing consortium of independent schools throughout the
country to conduct research and facilitate critical discussion on behalf of boys and girls.
3 . The survey used a range of closed and open-ended questions designed to address the frequency of
bullying, the contextual prevalence of bullying throughout the school, emotional experiences with
as other social, cultural, or institutional factors that may have contributed to bullying.
4 . Faculty interviewees were asked about their experiences with bullying personally, their observa-
tions of bullying at Rockport, their interpretations of bullying, and what, if anything, should the
school do about bullying. In addition, faculty interviewees were asked to react to some of the data
collected by student researchers.
5 . The student researchers' “hot zone” maps, as we referred to them, were maps of the school that
were color coded for the frequency of bullying. The students created four maps, one for each of
the four types of bullying we identified. The survey asked respondents to indicate where at Rock-
port the four types of bullying were most likely to happen. Given that data, six colors were used to
represent varying degrees of frequency across different buildings and open spaces throughout the
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Cammarota, Julio and Michelle Fine. 2008. Revolutionizing Education : Youth Participatory Action Re-
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