Geography Reference
In-Depth Information
The women who agreed to participate ranged from twenty-two to sixty-nine years of age. Their
marital status varied and included five divorced women, five married women, eight partnered wo-
men, and two single women. Nineteen women self-identified as heterosexual. One woman self-
nine of the white mothers had children of multiracial heritage (including black, Native American,
Puerto Rican, and Brazilian). The number of children per woman ranged from one to four. Ten of
the twenty women reported a history of domestic violence and identified themselves as survivors.
Six women self-identified as Irish American, four self-identified as Italian American, three wo-
menasIrishandItalian,onewomanself-identified asethnicallyPortugueseAmerican,onewoman
identified herself as culturally Jewish, and five identified as unhyphenated whites of no specific
to the impoverished rather than working classes. Four women identified their class background as
working class. Seven women identified their class background as lower middle or middle class.
Two women had earned master's degrees, three held bachelor's degrees, two held associate's de-
grees, three had some college education, four women held high school diplomas or G.E.D.'s, and
six women had completed middle school.
3 . Althougheachstudyexploresthevariousstigmamanagement strategies welfaredependentwomen
employ, all focus on the need of welfare dependent women to manage stigma.
4 . The 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring ra-
cial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of “separate but equal.”
5 . The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision and declared
state laws establishing racially segregated public schools were unconstitutional.
6 . Douglas, Craig M. “Greater Boston Gains Population, Remains 10th-largest Region in U.S.” Bo-
ston News | Boston Business Journal March 24, 2010. http://boston.bizjournals. com/boston/stor-
ies/2010/03/22/daily22.html .
7 . “Boston (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.” State and County QuickFacts. August 16,
8 . Gibson, Campbell. “Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United
States: 1790 to 1990.” Census Bureau Home Page. June 1998.
9 . “Boston (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.” State and County QuickFacts August 16,
10 . “Boston City, Massachusetts - DP-2. Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000.” American
FactFinder .
11 . “Boston (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.” State and County QuickFacts. August 16,
12 . “Massachusetts QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau.” State and County QuickFacts. August
16, 2010.
13 . Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops. Demographic Trends in the 20th Century . Washington, DC:
U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Special Reports. U.S. Government Printing Office. ht-
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