The women who agreed to participate ranged from twenty-two to sixty-nine years of age. Their
marital status varied and included five divorced women, five married women, eight partnered wo-
men, and two single women. Nineteen women self-identified as heterosexual. One woman self-
nine of the white mothers had children of multiracial heritage (including black, Native American,
Puerto Rican, and Brazilian). The number of children per woman ranged from one to four. Ten of
the twenty women reported a history of domestic violence and identified themselves as survivors.
Six women self-identified as Irish American, four self-identified as Italian American, three wo-
identified herself as culturally Jewish, and five identified as unhyphenated whites of no specific
to the impoverished rather than working classes. Four women identified their class background as
working class. Seven women identified their class background as lower middle or middle class.
Two women had earned master's degrees, three held bachelor's degrees, two held associate's de-
grees, three had some college education, four women held high school diplomas or G.E.D.'s, and
six women had completed middle school.
employ, all focus on the need of welfare dependent women to manage stigma.
4 . The 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring ra-
cial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of “separate but equal.”
state laws establishing racially segregated public schools were unconstitutional.
ston News | Boston Business Journal March 24, 2010. http://boston.bizjournals. com/boston/stor-
States: 1790 to 1990.” Census Bureau Home Page. June 1998. http://www.census.gov/population/
10 . “Boston City, Massachusetts - DP-2. Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000.” American
U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Special Reports. U.S. Government Printing Office. ht-