port, October, 2011.
Figure 9.4 Percentage of tenant based housing vouchers by race/ethnicity, 2011.
Between July 1, 2010 and October 31, 2011, the state of Massachusetts had 52,206
individuals receiving tenant vouchers, 12,311 of whom resided in the Boston metropol-
itan area. The average annual income of Massachusetts tenant voucher recipients was
$15,443 and $16,009 for Boston tenant voucher recipients. Thirty-nine percent of Mas-
sachusetts' tenant voucher recipients receive some form of welfare benefits. Thirty-four
percent of Boston area tenant voucher recipients receive some form of welfare bene-
fits. Female-headed households with children constituted 41% of Massachusetts tenant
voucher recipients and 38% of Boston tenant recipients. The majority of tenant vouch-
er recipients in Massachusetts are white. Seventy-five percent of Massachusetts tenant
voucher recipients were white, 21% were black/African American only, 2% were Asian
only, 1% were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander only; and 1% were any other com-
bination. Twenty-nine percent of Massachusetts tenant voucher recipients were Hispan-
ic or Latino; 66% of Boston tenant voucher recipients were white only; more than 10%
higher than Boston's white resident population overall. Twenty-nine percent of tenant
voucher recipients were black/African American only, 3% were Asian only, 1% were
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander only; and 1% was any other racial combination.
Twenty-two percent of Boston tenant voucher recipients were Hispanic or Latino. 23
The Class Closet: The Benefits of Camouflaging Welfare Dependency
Using four cases of welfare dependent white women residing in suburban communities,
we identify six material, social, and symbolic benefits white welfare dependent women
middle-class suburban communities where there was less demand for social services for