Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Figure 1.17 Diurnal variation of irradiance on different fa¸ade orientations and transmitted irradiance
by a sun-protected south fa¸ade on a day in August (Stuttgart)
irradiation by about 80%. Together with the total energy transmission ( g -value) of
a coated double glazing of typically 0.65, the transmitted external loads are about
78 W per square metre of glazing surface. In the case of a 3 m 2 glazing surface of
an enclosed office, the result is a load of 234 W, which creates an external load of
about 20 W m 2 based on an average surface of 12 m 2 . This situation is illustrated
for south-east-and west-facing fa¸ades in the summer in Figure 1.17. The total ex-
ternal and internal loads lead to an average cooling load in administrative buildings
of around 50 W m 2 (see Figure 1.18). The loads are typically dominated by office
equipment and external loads (see Figure 1.19). External loads depend on the ratio
Figure 1.18 Occurrence of typical loads of office buildings in Germany
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