Environmental Engineering Reference
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Figure 1.13 Cooling energy demand for different branches in Germany (DKV, 2002)
is estimated to be between 40 000 (Nick-Leptin, 2005) and 50 000 GWh per year
(DKV, 2002). The total electricity consumption for cooling in Germany has reached
14% of the total electricity consumption, which corresponds to 5.8% of the total
primary energy demand. The main cooling energy demand is in the food industry,
followed by climatization applications and industrial cooling (see Figure 1.13).
The largest European air-conditioning manufacturer and consumer is Italy, account-
ing for nearly half of all European production (Adnot, 1999): 69% of all room air-
conditioner sales are split units, with total annual sales of about 2 million units. In 1996
the total number of air-conditioning units installed in Europe was about 7 500 000. In
Southern Europe, the installed cooling capacity is dominated by the residential mar-
ket. Although less than 10% of homes in Spain have air-conditioning systems, 71%
of the installed cooling capacity is in the residential sector (Granados, 1997).
Between 1990 and 1996, electricity consumption for air-conditioning in the
European Union rose from about 24 000 GWh per year to 44000 GWh per year and
further increases up to 123 000 GWh per year in 2010 and nearly 160 000 GWh in
2020 are predicted (Adnot, 1998). Spain and Italy together are responsible for about
two-thirds of the total cooling energy demand (Adnot et al ., 2003, see Figure 1.14).
About 25% of the total electricity consumption is caused by room air-conditioners,
the rest by central air-conditioners. The average coefficient of performance (COP)
for all cooling technologies is currently about 2.7 (cooling power to electricity input)
with a target of about 3.0 for 2015. Energy labelling is now obligatory in the EU for
cooling devices of less than 12 kW power. The best label (A class) is obtained for
units with COP's above 3.2.
Cooling energy is often required in commercial buildings, with the highest con-
sumption worldwide being in the USA. In Europe the cooling energy demand for
such buildings varies between 3 and 30 MWh per year. Not much data is available
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