Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Sustainable Building Operation
Using Simulation
Dynamic system simulation tools are widely used in the planning stage for complex
buildings and their energy supply and distribution system. As shown in the overview
of solar cooling projects, detailed simulation models are not always available for new
technologies such as solar thermally driven cooling plants. The interaction of the solar
thermal cooling system with the building will therefore be analysed in this chapter.
Dynamic simulation models often contain algorithms to control heating, ventilation
or cooling plants (fan and pump volume flows, valves and flaps, etc.), renewable energy
systems or building components (sun shading systems, lights, etc.). These simulation
models, however, have no great significance for the real operation of buildings, dur-
ing which the energy is consumed. A 60-building case study by Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratories of commercial buildings showed that 50% of the buildings had
control problems. Analysing the savings through operation and maintenance improve-
ments in 132 further buildings demonstrated that 77% of the savings were obtained by
correcting control problems (Claridge et al ., 1994). Energy savings in such buildings
are usually in the range of 10-25%, sometimes as high as 44% (Hicks and Neida,
2000). This demonstrates the need for the improved design, implementation and on-
line supervision of control systems in buildings. Simulation systems can provide a
tool to improve building control during operation.
The integration of simulation models and the building automation system also of-
fers an opportunity to test the hardware controller within the simulation system. So-
called hardware-in-the-loop testing is widely used in the automotive industry, but
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