Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
TZ Köthen 15 kW LiBr
Schloss Salenegg Germany
Hotel Rethymno 105 kW, Greece
University Köthen
IEA survey maximum
Hotel Olympic 105 kW, Greece
Phönix 10 kW, FPC, Berlin
Utility building 95 kW, Austin
Neumark 10 kW, Italy
Innovation Centre Wiesenbusch
Paradigma Germany
ILK Dresden
Schüco International
Paradigma Italy
Conergy AG
WEGRA Anlagenbau GmbH
Sacramento building 70 kW ICPC
ZAE Garching 7 kW
Citrin Solar
Hotel Benidorm 125 kW
Central Press Office 88 kW, Berlin
EAR Tower 90 kW, Pristina
Federal Ministry of Traffic 84 kW,
Winery Banyuls 52 kW, France
Phönix 10 kW, VTC, Berlin
Office building 30 kW, Guadeloupe
University A.S. Ingolstadt
Perpignan 35 kW
Wolferts 92 kW, Cologne
CSTB 35 kW, Valbonne
National Park building Bad
Hotel Iberotel 140 kW, Dalamen
TU Ilmenau 10 kW
Viessmann 105 kW, Madrid
Ott und Spiess 35 kW, Langenau
M+W Zander 650 kW, Weilimdorf
Beijing 360 kW
Atmaca simulation (2003)
IEA survey minimum
Rushan 100 kW China
m² collector / kW cooling power
Figure 5.6 Collector surface per kilowatt of cooling power in various demonstration projects
This overview shows that dimensioning of solar cooling systems is a complex issue,
where planners often do not have adequate tools to determine the energy yield and
solar fraction. The ratios between solar collector surface area and cooling power
or storage volume and collector surface in the various demonstration projects vary
strongly (see Figure 5.6). Under comparable climatic conditions - in Austria and
Germany, for example - less than 1 and more than 5 square metres of collectors have
been installed per kilowatt of cooling power.
Also the ratio of storage volume (in litre water volume) to installed collector surface
varies by more than a factor of 20 in the different demonstration projects. While warm
water solar thermal systems or heating support systems have typical storage volumes
between 50 and 100 litres per square metre of collector surface, in the solar cooling
projects storage volumes are often much lower with less than 30 litres per square metre
of collector. However, there are also some projects with significant storage volumes
over 100 litres per square metre (see Figure 5.7).
The ratio of installed collector surface to the cooled building surface covers a
wide range of values from below 10% up to 30% of the building surface area (see
Figure 5.8). It is clear that the solar contribution to the total cooling demand must vary
significantly. Unfortunately, very few published results of measured solar fractions
are available today. These facts have led to the development of simulation models for
a combined solar cooling plant and building performance simulation, which will be
described in the next chapter.
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