HTML and CSS Reference
type treatment. So apparently <b> tags are not necessarily bold, but rather convey some
sense that the text is “different” (which likely means bold). Unlikely to be thought of in such
a manner by mere markup mortals, we simply say <b> tags live on, as do a number of other
presentational elements. Table 2-2 presents the meaning-changed elements that stay put in
HTML5 and their new meaning.
The meaning of some of these items might not be immediately clear, but don't worry
about that now, because each will be demonstrated later in the chapter and a full reference
presented in Chapter 3.
Like the strict variants of (X)HTML, HTML5 also removes numerous presentation-
focused attributes. Table 2-3 summarizes these values and presents CSS alternatives.
Out with the Old Elements
A few elements are removed from the HTML5 specification simply because they are archaic,
misunderstood, have usability concerns, or have a function that is equivalent to the function
of other elements. Table 2-4 summarizes some of the elements that have been removed from
the HTML5 specification.
N OTE While frames are mostly removed from HTML5, inline frames live on. See the section “The
Uncertain Future of Frames,” later in the chapter, for more information.
Table 2-4 is not a complete list of non-conforming elements, just the ones that are supported
by recent HTML 4 and XHTML 1.x specifications. Discussing the fact that ancient tags like
<listing> and <plaintext> continue not to be supported or that all the presentational tags
New Meaning in HTML5
Represents an inline run of text that is different stylistically from normal
text, typically by being bold, but conveys no other meaning of importance.
Used with HTML5's new details and figure elements to define the
contained text. Was also used with a dialog element which was later
removed from the HTML5 specification.
Used with HTML5's new details and figure element to summarize the
details. Was also used with a dialog element which was later removed
from the HTML5 specification.
Represents a thematic break rather than a horizontal rule, though that is
the likely representation.
Represents an inline run of text in an alternative voice or tone that is
supposed to be different from standard text but that is generally presented
in italic type.
Redefined to represent user interface menus, including context menus.
Represents small print, as in comments or legal fine print.
Represents importance rather than strong emphasis.
T ABLE 2-2 HTML 4 Elements Redefined in HTML5