HTML and CSS Reference
In-Depth Information
The how is specified by the protocol (for example, HTTP). Slashes and other characters are
used to separate the parts of the address into machine-readable pieces. The basic structure
of the URL is shown here:
protocol://site address/directory/filename#fragmentid
The next several sections look at the individual pieces of a URL in closer detail.
Server Address
A document exists on some serving computer somewhere on the global Internet or within a
private intranet. The first step in finding a document is to identify its server. This may be
performed by a site's IP address,
though it is more likely that an alphanumeric domain name is employed,
The name may be fully qualified with a machine name, a domain, an organization type,
and potentially, a country code. For example,
would specify the name of a machine called “www” in the domain htmlref, which is in the
top-level COM domain. By contrast,
would reference a machine known as “dev” in the same domain.
Very often for primary Web sites within a domain the machine name is omitted, so we
simply write
However, such configuration is up to the owner of the domain. This short-hand form
should be employed as most sites are reachable without a www prefix.
Historically, top-level domains such as those found in Table D-1 are used.
T ABLE D-1 Common
Top-Level Domains
Intended Type
Commercial entities
Educational institutions
Non-Profit organizations
Government entities
U.S. military
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