HTML and CSS Reference
charoff This attribute contains an offset, specified as a positive or negative integer, for
aligning characters as related to the char value. A value of 2 , for example, would align
characters in a cell two characters to the right of the character defined by the char attribute.
valign This attribute is used to set the vertical alignment for the table cells with a <tr> tag.
The specification defines baseline , bottom , middle , and top . Internet Explorer also
allows center , which should be the same as middle .
<table width="300" border="1">
<tr align="center" valign="middle">
<td> 3 </td>
<td> 5.6 </td>
<td> 7.9 </td>
HTML 3.2, 4, 4.01, 5
XHTML 1.0, 1.1, Basic
Firefox 1+, Internet Explorer 2+,
Netscape 1.1+, Opera 4+, Safari 1+
• This tag is contained only in the <table> , <thead> , <tbody> , and <tfoot> tags. It
contains the <th> and <td> tags.
• The HTML 3.2 specification defines only the align and valign attributes for this
• Internet Explorer 6 introduced ch and choff attributes per a draft standard at the
time, but they do not do anything and later are set as char and charoff .
• CSS visual changes to tables are suggested, but many sites claim that under strict
variants the various attributes like bgcolor no longer work. Testing in modern
browsers (IE 8, Firefox 3) at the time this edition was written does not support these
• Under the XHTML 1.0 specification, the closing </tr> tag is required, but under
older HTML and HTML5, the closing tag is optional.
• There are extended DOM methods for table-related tags like <tr> , including
insertRow() and deleteRow() .
<tt> (Teletype Text)
This inline element is used to indicate that text should be rendered in a monospaced font
similar to teletype text. The element is being marked as obsolete or deprecated and should
be avoided in favor of CSS.
dir="ltr | rtl"