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money needed to pay for domestic savings, population
growth is usually faster than in developed countries, and
most people have a lower standard of living with access to
fewer goods and services than most people in high-income
countries. In developing countries, urbanization is a key
process. Three main causes have been identified for urban
population growth (Gross and Monteiro 1989 ; Barba and
Rabuco 1997 ):
country is a coun-
try that has not
reached the stage
the growth of
Rapid overall natural population growth
Reclassification of rural areas as urban areas
Natural population growth in cities, in addition to transformation of rural to urban
areas, accounts for an average of 61% of the urban population growth in developing
countries. Rural-to-urban migration accounts for 39%. However, differences in urban
population growth exist within and between countries and regions in the world. For
example, in Latin America, where the urbanization level is already high, natural
population growth is likely the most important contributor to urban population growth
(Rossi-Espagnot 1984 ). In contrast, sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia are primar-
ily characterized by high levels of rural-to-urban migration and urban growth.
Developing countries contain a rapidly increasing proportion of the world's larg-
est metropolitan areas. In 1975, 10 of the largest metropolitan areas were in devel-
oping countries. In the 1980s, 22 of the 35 largest metropolitan areas, containing
about 45% of the world's metropolitan population, were in developing countries.
By 2000, 25 of the largest urban populations were in developing countries. By the
year 2010, it is projected that over 50% of the world's population will inhabit urban
areas, whereby the majority of the urban population growth is expected to be con-
centrated in developing countries.
The growth rates of urban populations vary across regions. In Africa, the world's
most rapidly urbanizing region, the annual urban population growth rate reached as
high as 5.5% during the period 1985-1990. By 2025, it will still be around 3%.
Alternatively, in Latin America, the average urban population growth rate declined
from 3.9% (1970-1975) to 2.9% (1985-1990) and likely to approximately 1.45%
(projected for 2025). In 1990, Latin America was the most urbanized region in the
developing world, with 72% of its people living in urban areas. In Asia, the annual
rate of urbanization was 3.1% during the period 1985-1990. This rate is expected
to decline to 1.1% during the period 2020-2025 (Cepede 1984 ; Gross 1990 ; Gross
and Monteiro 1989 ).
According to the World Bank's report, “World Development Indicators 2000,”
the share of urban residents in the world's total population (both developed and
developing countries) rose from 40% in 1980 to 46% in 1999. China, the world's
most crowded country, accommodates the highest urban population: in 1999, 400
million Chinese were urban residents. Second and third to China are India (279
million urban residents) and the US (210 million urban residents), respectively.
Turkey, the country in which this chapter's study area is located, ranks is the 14th