Image Processing Reference
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed databases for the cities of Madina,
Macca and Riyadh.
The State of Qatar has a unique country-wide GIS that has been in operation for
more than 10 years. This large GIS was designed efficiently to integrate data
from 16 different government agencies.
Other Urban Application Examples
There are other applications of remote sensing related to desert cities such as:
Extraction of primary transportation network
Census related statistics (population estimation)
Natural hazards and crisis management, flood, desertification, war, earthquake
Site selection of landfills for industrial and domestic waste in urban areas
Suitability analysis of tourist development sites in coastal environments
Currently, however, we do not know of any operational applications of these issues
in developing countries. However, there are examples of other urban remote sens-
ing applications in developing countries, such as the use of RS in the monitoring of
floods in the Syria during the recent years, two wars in Iraq, and earthquakes in the
cities of Algiers (Algeria), Pam (Iran) and Taza (Morocco)
Urban Areas Monitoring and Modeling
This section presents a set of techniques used to detect changes over time in urban
areas, and drivers of such changes. The techniques are illustrated in brief through
case study examples from the literature.
Land Use Change Detection
There is a wide range of techniques used for land use change detection in urban
areas. These techniques can be subdivided into the following categories:
Multi-Date Composite Image Method : Images of different periods can be combined
to form a new composite single image, in which changes may be visually inferred
from variations in gray tone or color hue. Enhancement procedure most frequently
employed for change detection includes image overlay, image differencing, image
ratioing, and vegetation indices. The composite image is then classified (Fung and
Zhang 1989 ).
Image Comparison Method : A comparison can be made between multi-date satellite
images. These images may be single band gray tone or multiple band color composite