Image Processing Reference
50 years. Many other aspects of urban remote sensing have only been
addressed briefly here, yet are presented in more detail in Chapters 4 and 5,
which are devoted to spectral and temporal properties of urban environments.
In addition to relative discussions in this topic, the paper by Jensen and Cowen
( 1999 ) provides a comprehensive review of the spatial, spectral, and temporal
characteristics of urban attributes and remote sensing systems. The paper cov-
ers data availability and requirements for a number of the most common ear-
lier remote sensing applications such as land use and land cover classification,
building and cadastral infrastructure mapping and planning, and utility and
transportation system analysis.
Further developments within the field of remote sensing and the allied
mapping sciences of GIS and cartography, including the increasingly avail-
able commercial, high spatial resolution imagery, should enhance the ability
to learn and understand more aspects of urban places and populations. Besides
some challenges and inconclusive results, the first attempts have already been
made to link the physical and social attributes of urban environments. Mor-
phing physical remote sensing with social sciences appears to be the current
trend in studies of urban environments. Here, we have attempted to emphasize
that the joint evolution of remote sensing technologies and urban remote sens-
ing applications is what keeps this research theme alive.
Conduct an Internet search for the websites of the following remote sensing
imaging systems (LANDSAT [MSS, TM, ETM+]; NOAA [AVHRR, DMSP-
OLS]; SPOT [HRV, HRVIR, HRG]; IRS [LISS-II; LISS-III; PAN]; ERS and
JERS [SAR-AMI; SAR-OPS]; RADARSAT [SAR]; GOES; AVIRIS, EarlyBird;
OrbView; EOS [ASTER; MISR; MODIS]; IKONOS; QuickBird; EO
[HYPERION; ALI]; EnviSat [MERIS; ASAR]). Use the technical documenta-
tion available on these websites to construct a comparative matrix for some or
all of the above-listed imaging sensors detailing the following information: sensor
name, sensor operational country and/or organization, operational period (mis-
sion's start and end dates, if applicable), swath, spatial resolution, spectral cover-
age, spectral resolution and number of spectral bands, radiometric resolution,
revisit time-intervals (if applicable); and mode of sensing (i.e., passive/active).