Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Physical Storage Using
Nanostructured and
Porous Materials
Besides compression, liquification, and chemical storage, hydrogen can also
be stored based on physical absorption using various carbon-based or
noncarbon-based materials. Nanostructured materials are particularly attrac-
tive due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. Nanomaterials used for hydro-
gen storage based on physisorption include carbon nanostructures, organic
polymers, inorganic nanostructures, and composite structures. For ease of
discussion, we will divide them into two categories: carbon based and non-
carbon based, and discuss each separately next.
Figure 7.1 shows schematic summary of some of the different physical
storage methods as compared with chemical storage. For storage based on
physisorption, large surface area is critical. Nanostructured materials are
therefore ideally suited for such purpose.
7.1.1 Carbon Nanostructures
Carbon nanostructures, particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes,
nanofibers, and, more recently, graphenes, have been studied for hydrogen
storage [1, 2]. They are attractive due to a combination of good adsorption
ability, high specific surface area, porous microstructure, and low mass
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