Environmental Engineering Reference
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Table 3.4 Institutional indicators for assessing the CIA 'High level of opportunism'
Number of infringement cases in a
country brought before the Court of
High numbers of
cases indicate
high levels of
Rule of Law
Composite indicator of the extent to
which agents have confidence in and
abide by the rules of society, and
in particular the quality of contract
enforcement, the police, and the
courts, as well as the likelihood of
crime and violence
World Bank
Low measures
indicate high
levels of
Assessment of popular observance of
the law (Part of composite indicator
'Rule of Law')
World Bank
Low measures
indicate high
levels of
This includes, first, combining the various indicator information available for
every single CIA of the restricted list to arrive at a qualitative statement about the
relative extent of this CIA in all countries and/or regions. For example, the level
of corruption can be determined for every country where the policy option is to
be implemented, thus, providing insights in the relative - country-wise - likelihoods
for ineffective policy implementation. Second, the PICA expert team is defining
thematic categories of institutional compatibility to group the CIA and the respective
qualitative statements. While it is certainly helpful to use science-driven categories,
such as property rights compatibility, embeddedness compatibility, etc., policy
makers who commissioned the assessment might prefer different or additional
categories. Each thematic category draws on information from at least one CIA.
For the selected core element of the EU Nitrate Directive the PICA expert team
suggests to group the information according to the following two thematic
1. Communication capacity
Bargaining power of farmers' associations
2. Governance structures compatibility
Information asymmetry state versus irm (including high levels of opportunism)
Finally, these categorised region- or country-wise qualitative statements on the
compatibility of the policy option will be presented to the policy maker who
has commissioned the policy assessment with SEAMLESS-IF. Here, an interactive
form of communication is preferred since this provides the opportunity to discuss
the results and, perhaps, the introduction of complementary policy instruments
in countries or regions where - according to the PICA results - implementation is
likely to be substantially hampered. Figure 2. 3 summarises the four steps of PICA.
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