Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
introduced here offer a systematic way to classify policy options linked to agriculture,
environment, or rural development that a policy maker might wish to assess. The
particular type of intervention together with the area of intervention provide the
basic information to describe a certain policy type. Additional dimensions used to
classify policy options include possibly induced property rights changes and the
attributes of the natural resource(s) addressed, such as excludability, rivalry, and
complexity. The objective of this specification of policy types is to provide a suitable,
yet formalised, structure to identify crucial institutional aspects that are of particular
importance for the policy option under scrutiny. It is assumed that the policy type,
as represented by distinct boxes in the matrix of Table 3.1 , is decisive for the range
and kind of crucial institutional aspects that can be expected to be conducive or
detrimental to the implementation of this policy option.
Practically, this typology does allow limiting the number of CIA that needs to be
reviewed when evaluating the policy to be implemented. In the absence of this
classification or 'filter', all identified CIA relevant for agricultural, environmental,
and rural development policies would have to be processed every time a policy
option is to be assessed. At the same time, there may be policy options that cannot
be categorised without any doubt in one single box; perhaps because the policy
option is described rather poorly. While this would indeed extend the range of
relevant CIA to be considered in the subsequent analysis it does not jeopardise the
overall assessment. Not the least because the initial list of CIA that is derived
directly from the categorisation of the policy option is discussed with stakeholders
and other experts in PICA Step two and may be revised accordingly (Schleyer et al.
2007b : 15ff.). In the following, the dimensions of the classification system will be
explained in more detail.
The types of intervention , i.e., the policy instruments are inscribed in the respec-
tive rows of the matrix in Table 3.1 . They describe how and by which means the
impact of a policy shall be reached 9 :
Regulatory or command-and-control instruments (compulsory): e.g., laws,
regulations, specific protection targets, and designations of areas for protected
habitats or species
Economic instruments often using financial (dis)incentives: e.g., taxes, subsidies,
grants and loans, and tradable pollution permits
10 instruments: e.g., codes of good practice, extension
services and other informative measures, and environmental audits
9 Please note that in general all types of intervention can be induced by public as well as private
actors. However, while typical applications of PICA would rather address policy options to be
induced by public actors, institutional compatibility assessments using PICA could also be carried
out for policies induced by private actors.
10 Of course, some economic policies, such as agri-environmental schemes, are also voluntary in
character since farmers can choose to participate in those schemes, or not. In contrast, in this
category, the term 'voluntary' refers to policies that motivate voluntary actions or behavioural
changes of actors without direct financial incentives or regulations, i.e., for example, by convincing
actors using various kinds of information materials.
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