Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
F6: landscape:
ind 12-1 Contribution to open space. This indicator is a function of several
variables, and has the value one when the share of on-farm forests, moors and
low productive areas in total on-farm area and grazed land is below 5%.
ind12-3 Contribution to landscape patchwork. This indicator is derived using
a scoring mechanism: the main crops are grouped together (cereals, corn, oil
seeds, etc.) and each group is given a value of one when its area is greater
than 10% of the total area, and a percentage of points for lower areas (for
example, a group sharing 5% of the total area is assessed a score of 0.5 point).
This indicator has the value one when the total score is greater than two and
the value zero if less than two.
F7: water quality:
ind 13 Water quality. The farm is considered to be contributing to good water
quality when the total amount of organic nitrogen spread is lower than 70 kg
N/ha and either (a) the share of agricultural area with bare soils in winter if
lower than 30%, or (b) for a share of bare soils in winter comprised between
30% and 60%, the farmer joins a programme of nitrate or pesticides manage-
ment, or (c) the share of organic farming is greater than 75%, or (d) for a share
of bare soils greater than 60%, the share of organic farming is greater than 75%.
When one of these conditions is met this indicator is given a value of one,
otherwise a value of zero.
F8: biodiversity:
ind 16 Management of ecologically rich habitats. This indicator has the value
one when the farmer's share of low productive grassland is greater than
12.5% (when he uses collective pastures) and 25% when he does not use
collective pastures.
ind 17 Diversity of crops. This indicator is derived using a scoring mecha-
nism: each crop is assessed a score (see ind12-3 for details of calculation).
When the total score is greater than three, ind 17 equals one.
Table 2.4 depicts the assessment of the above indicators on a subset of farms, in
a presentation close to Table 2.1 . Put differently, this corresponds to the identifica-
tion of jointness which we regard as the precursor to the qualitative and quantitative
assessment of jointness that will be explored below.
The Auvergne set of farms consists of a total of 354 individuals. A preliminary
exploration of data, performed using principal component analysis (PCA), is
depicted in Fig. 2.2 . The analysis suggests that jointness exists between the supply
of commodity outputs (variable PBRTO: total gross product) and the supply of non
commodity outputs (indicators designed above). Moreover, the farms in this area
are liable to sign a contract, named on-farm territorial contract, according to which
the farmers are subsidised for the provision of non-commodity outputs: but,
because the variable that depicts this contract, CTEXP, is orthogonal to the two first
axis of the principal components analysis, we can consider that the signature of the
contract has no influence on the degree of jointness in our set of farms.
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